September 24, 2018

The Science of Reading

Stages of Reading

Ages     1 – 6    Pretending to Read

Grades 1 – 2    Decoding

Grades 2 – 3    Fluency

Grades 4 – 9    Information

High School    Viewpoints – Critical

College             Creating Own Truth

Five Areas of Reading Instruction

National Reading Panel Identifies Five Areas of Reading Instruction

• Phonemic Awareness

• Phonics

• Fluency

• Vocabulary

• Text Comprehension

How Do Children Learn to Read?

• Reading is a language based skill.

• Reading is only peripherally visual; that is, the only role of the eyes for reading is

that they transmit symbols to the brain.

• The eyes do not read; the brain does.

• What the brain does is to “translate” the letters into sounds in an alphabetic


m = /m/

• Those sounds are the same sounds that come out of your mouth when you talk;

that is, they are speech sounds.

man = /m/ /a/ /n/

• Reading is print to speech to meaning.

*Richard Sparks, 2008

Important Pieces of Language for Reading

All languages have universals

• Phonemes are smallest unit of speech. (Sounds)

• Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning.

• Syntax includes grammar, sentence structure.

• Semantics is the meaning of words, phrases, sentences


*Orton-Gillingham addresses all of these areas.


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