Stages of Reading
Ages 1 – 6 Pretending to Read
Grades 1 – 2 Decoding
Grades 2 – 3 Fluency
Grades 4 – 9 Information
High School Viewpoints – Critical
College Creating Own Truth
Five Areas of Reading Instruction
National Reading Panel Identifies Five Areas of Reading Instruction
• Phonemic Awareness
• Text Comprehension
How Do Children Learn to Read?
• Reading is a language based skill.
• Reading is only peripherally visual; that is, the only role of the eyes for reading is
that they transmit symbols to the brain.
• The eyes do not read; the brain does.
• What the brain does is to “translate” the letters into sounds in an alphabetic
m = /m/
• Those sounds are the same sounds that come out of your mouth when you talk;
that is, they are speech sounds.
man = /m/ /a/ /n/
• Reading is print to speech to meaning.
*Richard Sparks, 2008
Important Pieces of Language for Reading
All languages have universals
• Phonemes are smallest unit of speech. (Sounds)
• Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning.
• Syntax includes grammar, sentence structure.
• Semantics is the meaning of words, phrases, sentences
*Orton-Gillingham addresses all of these areas.